Luehr2 and wandono 4 1institute of petroleum geology and geophysics, sb ras, prospekt akademika koptuga, 3, novosibirsk, 630090, russia. Toba caldera complex location map plotted on base dem image. Available formats pdf please select a format to send. With 100 by 30 km 62 by 19 mi it is the worlds largest quaternary caldera, and the fourth and youngest caldera. The toba caldera is one of the volcanic complexes of the sunda arc, where the indoaustralian plate subducts obliquely at a rate of 56mm per year7. Because the previously known tuktuk and samosir fault lava domes occur near the base of a major resurgent dome fault, they appear associated with resurgent uplift, and dating them could provide constraints on the timing of resurgence. We estimate that deposition of the ash occurred a 800 ka ago and that it is spread over an area of at least 3. Lake toba is earths largest volcanic lake, measuring a staggering 100. Petrogenesis of the toba tuffs, sumatra, indonesia. The toba caldera complex in north sumatra, indonesia formed due to a number of volcanic eruptions, of which the most recent around 74ka is considered to be one of the largest to occur on earth during the quaternary chesner, 2012. Available online xxx abstract the toba caldera in indonesia is one of the most remarkable volcanic features formed during quaternary geologic time. Pdf mountain chains and rivers are often found to represent barriers promoting.
Inversions reveal the presence of p velocities up to 37% below normal that likely map the distribution of magma. We have estimated the possible macromechanical properties of such media via the modeling of seismic velocities in random layered structures 15, 21. Caldera locations indicated by dashed lines where hdt brown, ott yellow, mtt dark blue, and ytt red. Toba catastrophe theory wikimili, the best wikipedia reader. Danau toba is a large natural lake in sumatra, indonesia occupying. In different subduction zones, many traces of caldera forming eruptions have been recorded8. The toba caldera complex in northern sumatra was the site of 4 caldera forming eruptions in the past 1. It is elongated in a nwse direction parallel to the active volcanic front of sumatra, and it measures 100 km by 30 km.
The toba caldera volcanic complex has a unclear landscape of a volcano as any other volcanic caldera, since most of the remains of this volcano are covered by. P and s velocity structure beneath the toba caldera. It was so enormous that it is thought that the eruptions nearly wiped out all human life on the planet. Four separate eruptions have occurred from vents within the present collapse structure, which formed from eruption of the 2800 km3 youngest toba tuff ytt at 74 ka. The enigmatic origin and emplacement of the samosir island. Posted on 07122015 biocalderamasax posted in noticias. Largevolume supervolcanic eruptions are also often associated with large igneous. Abstract the toba caldera in indonesia is one of the most remarkable volcanic features formed during quaternary geologic time. Introduction australasian tektites are found in indochina, southern china, the philippines, malaysia, indonesia, and australia. Samosir lava domes are outlined by orange circles and pardepur lava domes are light blue.
The eruption was two orders of magnitude x100 larger than the largest known historic eruption, that of tambora, also in indonesia this eruption was the last and largest of four eruptions of toba during the quaternary epoch. Textural study of pumice clasts from the youngest toba. Paleomagnetic observations from lake sediments on samosir. The lake is about 100 kilometres long, 30 kilometres 19 mi wide, and up to 505 metres 1,657 ft deep. The tectonic framework of the sumatran subduction zone. The toba caldera complex in north sumatra comprises four overlapping volcanic craters that adjoin the sumatran volcanic front. Pdf contrasting genetic, acoustic, and morphological.
The toba caldera complex in northern sumatra, comprises four overlapping volcanic craters that adjoin the sumatran volcanic front. The tephra products from this eruption can be found. Distribution of magma beneath the toba caldera complex, north. Pdf distribution of magma beneath the toba caldera. Australasian microtektites and associated impact ejecta in. Stratigraphy of the toba tuffs and the evolution of the. The feeder system of the toba supervolcano from the slab. Lake toba is a large natural lake in sumatra, indonesia occupying the caldera of a supervolcano.
The radial anisotropy within the middle crust below the toba caldera fig. An analysis of toba caldera geopark discourse in north. In this paper, we investigate the crustal and uppermost mantle structure beneath toba caldera, which is known as the location of one of the largest cenozoic eruptions on earth. Available online xxx abstract the toba caldera in indonesia is one of the most remarkable volcanic. Frontiers the magnitude and impact of the youngest toba.
Magma storage under the caldera occurs slowly over time, in the form of horizontal layers of magma injected into the crust. S9 can be explained by a large layered intrusion complex that is dominated by horizontally oriented sills. The lake is about 100 kilometres long, 30 kilometres 19 mi wide, and up to 505 metres 1,657. Composition of volcanic allanite from the toba tuffs. The toba caldera complex in northern sumatra is a 100 3 30 km topographic depression of several overlapping calderas resulting from four major eruptions during the quaternary e. Joint body and surface wave tomography applied to the toba. Distribution of magma beneath the toba caldera complex, north sumatra, indonesia, constrained by threedimensional p wave velocities, seismicity, and gravity data may 2001 geochemistry geophysics. Erupting at least 2800 km3 of magma in a single event 74,000 years ago, it. The supereruption of toba has been closely linked to a peak in so 4 2 in the gisp2 ice core zielinski et al. Carbon14 dating, lake sediments, toba caldera, resurgence, numerical modeling, magmatic. This ribu is the highest point on the volcanic island of samosir, which lies within the vast toba caldera complex a landscape formed 74,000 years ago by the largest volcanic explosion in the history of the world.
Ten samples from the toba caldera complex were collected from four different groups eight samples from three distinct lava domeflow regions around toba caldera and two ytt samples in order to. Chesner department of geologygeography, eastern illinois university, charleston, il 61920, united states article info article history. This can occur at hotspots for example, yellowstone caldera or at subduction zones for example, toba. An analysis of toba caldera geopark discourse in north sumatra province of indonesia1 abstract the idea of geopark discourse is the new language for lake toba development. Thii eruption was the occurrnce in british columbia has been described by fourth igrimbriteforming eruption from toua ln the past. Following the rich history of lake toba formation as the result of devastating supervolcano eruption.
Luehr 2, and wandono 4 1 institute of petroleum geology and geophysics, sb ras, prospekt akademika koptuga, 3, novosibirsk, 630090, russia email. A large magmatic sill complex beneath the toba caldera. The toba caldera in indonesia is one of the most remarkable volcanic. The toba caldera in indonesia is one of the most remarkable volcanic features formed during quaternary geologic time. The supereruption of toba, did it cause a human bottleneck.
Salpingooophorectomy and the risk of ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancers in women with a brca1 or brca2 mutation august 2006 jama the journal of the american medical association 2962. Beneath the toba caldera and other volcanoes of the arc, we observe relatively moderate for volcanic areas negative p. Toba caldera complex, north sumatra, indonesia, modified after knight et al. The toba caldera has been the site of several large explosive eruptions in the recent geological past, including the worlds largest pleistocene eruption 74,000 years ago. Eruption of the three older toba tuffs alternated from calderas situated in northern and southern. Caldera rinjani caldera tambora caldera caldera complex with four. The toba catastrophe theory holds that this event caused a global volcanic winter of six to ten years and possibly a 1,000yearlong cooling episode. New data reveal details of the post caldera history at the earths youngest resurgent supervolcano, toba caldera in sumatra. The toba supereruption was a supervolcanic eruption that occurred about 75,000 years ago at the site of presentday lake toba in sumatra, indonesia. The lake is located in the middle of the northern part of the island of sumatra, with a surface elevation of about 900 metres 2,953 ft, the lake stretches from 2. The stations were equipped with the 1 hz mark products l4 sensors whose lowerfrequency limit of sensitivity is approximately at 0. High decompression rate of the youngest toba tuff eruption.
The toba depression overlies two magma reservoirs in the shallow caldera forming, ash. Converted wave imaging of the toba caldera, indonesia. Paleomagnetic observations from lake sediments on samosir island, toba caldera, indonesia, and its late pleistocene resurgence volume 95 katharine e. Volcanology ascentmechanismoflargemagmavolumesthrough. The fourth and youngest caldera is the worlds largest quaternary caldera 100 by 30 km 62 by 19 mi and intersects the three older calderas. Supervolcanoes occur when magma in the mantle rises into the crust but is unable to break through it and pressure builds in a large and growing magma pool until the crust is unable to contain the pressure. Ice core data show that the weather was cooler for several centuries after the toba erup. Inner ytt collapse fault is shown with short red dashes. P, s velocity and vpvs ratio beneath the toba caldera.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise cambridge core to connect with your account. Eruptive history of earths largest quaternary caldera toba, indonesia clarified pdf. This research compared geological aspect of toba caldera, batur caldera. The conduit dynamics of toba caldera forming eruption is still poorly. We apply our algorithm to data collected in the region surrounding the toba caldera complex. Resurgent tobafield, chronologic, and model constraints. In 1993, science journalist ann gibbons posited that a population. Pdf volcanological comparison of toba caldera, krakatoa.
An estimated 2,800 km 3 670 cu mi of denserock equivalent pyroclastic material, known as the youngest toba tuff, was. Toba caldera, indonesia, caused the greatest volcanic catastrophe of the last 100 kyr, climactically erupting. Ten samples from the toba caldera complex were collected from four different groups eight. The steepwalled caldera contains lake toba, the largest volcanic lake on the planet. Hatfield, indyo pratomo, rendi jamil, baskoro setianto. A large magmatic sill complex beneath the toba caldera k. Tuffs respectively known as the haranggoal dacite tuff hdt erupted at 1. In these areas, the joint inversion of different types of data helps us to build a comprehensive understanding of the entire system. Toba caldera complex, north sumatra, indonesia is well known as the largest quaternary caldera 87 33 km that formed by four major eruptions with magnitude of vei 8 among which the biggest one is the latest eruption of the youngest toba tuff ytt about 74,000 years ago.784 1337 68 544 662 133 1291 1061 256 1058 134 1434 908 915 940 485 1067 614 529 63 1147 70 274 804 1046 574 1022 1007 269 903 641 1406 291 404 1066 963 561 1193 1160